Fine Art Photographs in Dry Print Out Gold, Rhodium, Iridium, Electrum, Platinum, Silver and Palladium

The short documentary, Magic Iron Rose, about Richard Eugene Puckett's relentless quest to work out a formula for printing out rhodium, won a bronze Remi at the 2017 Houston WorldFest. Click on the image below to view the film.

Richard Eugene Puckett has developed simple formulas that fundamentally alter the light-sensitive compounds used to print photographs with the noble metals. The Texas Chrysotype that sets gold prints truly on a par with platinum and palladium is the most widely recognized of Richard Eugene Puckett's processes: pure gold photographs with gray tonality, invisible gs'ain, and a wide tonal range -- and that print out on completely dry paper.


Dry print out with pure gold failed in May 2019 -- all of the ammonium ferric oxalate I had on hand, nearly 2 pounds, went bad after some 9 years of shelf life. Gold would not print out in the fresh ammonium ferric oxalate I ordered. By mid-August 2019 the ammonium ferric oxalate (AFO) has aged (or ripened) sufficiently to reduce gold chloride to image-forming elemental gold.  So, anyone hoping to print grainless, gray-scale, continuous tone gold photographs with a latitude of 9 to 12 stops will need to purchase fresh ammonium ferric oxalate crystals and set aside the container, with its lid loose, for about 4 months.

The printer lacking a stock of AFO already at least 4 months old can hasten the aging process by preparing a stock of 40% solution and storing that liquid in an oversized clear glass container with no lid (or a loose lid) to accelerate oxidation and, hence, usability of the AFO. The best solution is simply to purchase the ammonium ferric oxalate crystals in May and to begin printing a summer's of negatives in September (and for approximately 7 years thereafter before fresh ammonium ferric oxalate crystals will be needed)...  Note that curious behavior of ammonium ferric oxalate applies also to the Karytype -- gold-platinum -- and to the Palladiotype Supreme and to the Electrumtype, as well as to the Auridiotype -- iridium with gold. It does not appear to hinder print out with platinum using my Platinotype Supreme process, nor my Rhodiotype. However, the printer can substitute sodium ferric ferrous oxalate for printing palladium/platinum/rhodium and iridium. Probably for gold as well (just fewer drops of 1% c).


I will shortly (fall 2019) announce a major new  breakthrough, the Cyanotype Supreme, a process that finally after 180 years offers fine art printers true continuous tone cyanotype prints with a wide tonal range -- no more flat, dreary looking blue  prints with either blocked up shadows or blown highlights.  With the Cyanotype Supreme, the printer is rewarded, for the first time in nearly 180 years,  with true photographs, the image formed from potassium ferricyanide, comparable in quality to silver gelatin, platinum, and Chrysotype Supreme gold prints. In addition to image quality that rockets far beyond any previous cyanotype process, and especially beyond the mediocre quality of the so-called "new" cyanotype, this process does NOT require dangerous and carcinogenic chemicals : no horrifyingly toxic dichromate is called for and absolutely no nitric acid. And also unlike the "new" cyanotype, you don't need to cross your fingers and pray for a decent print somehow against all odds to appear out of all those ridiculous toxins... 

The delay in the reveal is simply caused by the time it takes to file for a patent and to receive confirmation of that patent application's registration. Believe it or not there are unscrupulous types out there who will gladly steal a process and claim they invented it. One character even claimed he had invented the commonest tool of the wet plate era: the glass coating rod. There are men and there are roaches. 


Richard Eugene Puckett, shortly after announcing his ground-breaking chrysotype in the March/April 2012 issue of View Camera magazine, introduced in rapid succession three more dry print out processes:

  • THE KARYTYPE (View the Karytype formula), the only process in the world for printing out pictorial gold and platinum images 
  • THE PLATINOTYPE SUPREME, the holy grail of fine art printing with the noble metals: dry print out pure platinum
  • THE PALLADIOTYPE SUPREME (View the Palladiotype Supreme formula), dry print out palladium 

After presenting the Texas Chrysotype in person at the 2013 Alternative Photography International Symposium (APIS) in Santa Fe, New Mexico, Puckett returned to Austin and quickly formulated the Electrumtype, gold and silver,  along with similar processes that substituted rhodium and iridium for the gold. Later research in 2016 and 2017 resulted in the Omnitype, all of the foregoing metals combined for a unique tour de force, as well as the Iridiotype and the Rhodiotype. Puckett had finally completed his ultimate goal: dry print out of gold, iridium, rhodium, platinum, palladium, and silver alone or in any combination with each other. 

The metal(s) content of Richard Eugene Puckett's prints has been validated by the Getty Conservation Institute and other professional analysts using ESEM and XRF analysis. At latest count, Puckett lays claim to one dozen validated processes.

Full List of Richard Eugene Puckett's Processes

Richard Eugene Puckett's innovation of magic iron -- ammonium ferric oxalate reduced partially to ammonium ferrous oxalate -- liberated fine art photographic printers from the bare choice of platinum or palladium.  And even those familiar processes have been transformed by magic iron. No development, no heavy breathing on paper as one person (whose processes never actually worked) recommended: prepare the magic iron, mix it with the metal salt(s), brush onto paper, dry and print out. Coating with a glass rod (invented not in the late 20th century by an addled university don in Scotland, but probably by Roman glassmakers 2000 years ago) is optional with the Platinotype Supreme and Palladiotype Supreme, as well as with the silver processes. 

  • Texas Chrysotype: pure gold, dry print out (DPO) -- requires ammonium ferric oxalate aged at least 6 months in storage. For dry print out of gold equal to platinum, regardless of shelf age of the sensitizer, the forthcoming product I will be selling, using an entirely new approach to printing gold, will be necessary.
  • Karytype: continuous tone, gray scale gold and platinum, DPO
  • Platinotype Supreme: pure platinum DPO,  may be mixed with palladium or iridium (this process is quite different from Pizzighelli's 1890 formula, the invention of which was ridiculously claimed by the same university don who "invented" the glass coating rod...)
  • Palladiotype Supreme: pure palladium DPO, may be mixed with platinum and/or gold and/or iridium and/or rhodium
  • Rhodiotype: rhodium DPO, two versions: one pure rhodium and the ohter using small volume of palladium chloride to reduce. The palladium is optionally dissolved with a hydrochloric acid bath after print out
  • Iridiotype: iridium DPO
  • Auridiotype: gold and iridium DPO
  • Electrumtype: gold and silver; partial gold DPO with silver nitrate develop out completion*
  • Iridiotype AG: iridium and silver; partial iridium DPO with silver nitrate develop out completion*
  • Rhodiotype AG: rhodium and silver; partial rhodium DPO with silver nitrate develop out completion*
  • Cyanotype Supreme: continuous tone photographic images in Prussian Blue exhibiting a dynamic range rivalling palladium prints. 

Awe is the touchstone of art. 

* These three processes involve partially printing out an image in the nobler metal, then fully developing it out with silver nitrate. They have all been validated by professional XRF spectrometric analysis; however, the formulas are suppressed and are solely for my personal work.  

Gold-Rhodium. Richard Eugene Puckett refined and resolved this formula on-camera in his documentary, Magic Iron Rose.
Gold-Iridium. This combination is simple proof that you can only create to the limits of your imagination. Before Richard Eugene Puckett mixed these two noble metals together, no one in the world even conceived of such a combination.
Gold-Platinum: gold precipitates out of solution in the presence of platinum using conventional printing processes. Not so with the Karytype formula. Gold and platinum synergistically render images exhibiting the finest characteristics of each metal.  
This image is half rhodium, one-quarter platinum, and one-quarter palladium -- another combination no one in the world could ever print. 
Gold: the famous Texas Chrysotype is the only process for printing grainless, gray-scale, continuous tone prints in pure gold.  
Rhodium-Palladium prints cannot be found in any collection, any museum, or any references. Richard Eugene Puckett is the only photographer in history able to print with rhodium.  

All images on this site are protected under international copyright law. Any use of these images without written permission of the copyright holder, Richard Eugene Puckett, is a violation of law. To purchase a print, or to rent an image, contact me: